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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is primarily caused by a process called atherosclerosis, which involves the build-up of plaque within the coronary arteries. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, these deposits can accumulate and cause the arteries to become narrow and hardened, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle...


Having a family history of heart disease.
Eating unhealthy, stress, high-fat foods, being sedentary, and smoking.
Medical conditions:
Including diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

 Source: CDC



Coronary artery disease (CAD) often remains undetected until a heart attack occurs, serving as a significant warning sign. Symptoms of a heart attack include:

  1. Chest pain or discomfort, also known as angina.

  2. Weakness, dizziness, nausea, or cold sweats.

  3. Pain or discomfort radiating to the arms or shoulder.

  4. Shortness of breath.

Furthermore, if left untreated, CAD can progressively weaken the heart muscle, potentially resulting in heart failure. In heart failure, the heart's ability to pump blood efficiently is compromised. Therefore, prompt recognition and management of CAD are crucial to prevent heart attacks and minimize the risk of heart failure.


There are various treatment options available to help most people with coronary artery disease (CAD). These treatments include:

  1. Medication: Doctors can prescribe medications to address the effects of heart disease. These medications aim to control risk factors such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and cholesterol levels, helping to manage and reduce the progression of CAD.

  2. Coronary stent: Also known as percutaneous coronary intervention, this procedure involves inserting a catheter to the site of the blockage in the artery. The catheter helps open up the blocked artery, restoring proper blood flow and relieving symptoms of CAD.

  3. Heart surgery: In cases where the blockages are severe or extensive, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may be recommended. This surgical procedure involves creating new pathways for blood to bypass the blocked arteries, allowing improved blood flow to the heart muscle.

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